| Day 1
Theoretical introduction: constitution of materials, natural materials, materials used in engineering: metals and alloys, engineering ceramics, polymers, composites.
- Mechanical and technological properties of metals and evaluation methods of properties : static tensile test (Rp, Rsp, Re or R 0,2, Rm, A, Z – methods of evaluation, static hardness testing: Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop, Chruszczow-Bierkowicz, Grodziński; dynamic testing: Poldi hardness tester, Shore scleroscope, impact value.
- Structure and properties: classification of the elements, atomic structure, interactions between atoms, the presence or the lack of presence of crystal structures, basic crystal forms, especially those present in A1, A2 and A3 metals and their influence on alloys’ properties.
- Plastic forming of metals and their alloys: plastic deformation mechanisms: deformation by slip and twinning, crystallographic defects: point, line and planar defects; the impact of defects density on mechanical properties of metals and alloys; cold plastic working of metals, degree of cold work and interannealing (recrystallizing).
- Metallurgy: classification of Fe alloys: steel, cast steel, cast iron. Definition of steel. Methods of steelmaking; alloying and secondary refining; steel casting methods (strand casting, top casting, bottom casting). Attempts to fix the liquation of cast ingots: hot-working (rolling, drawing, stamping: open-die forging, impression die forging, pressing, rotary forging), degree of forming.
- Iron-carbon phase diagram: solutions, mixtures, intermetallics, two ingredients phase diagrams, Fe – C diagram, carbon steels and their properties (phase composition), analysis of phase transitions (peritectoid, eutectic, eutectoid transformation); the diagram analysis of phase composition in cast steel and cast iron, metallographic photos and the influence of phase composition on the properties of cast steel and cast iron.
| Day 2
- Time-temperature-transformation diagrams: cooling time and methods of cooling (continuous or with isothermic asrrest), critical cooling rate, phase transformation during cooling (martensite and bainitic transformation), differences between bainite and martensite.
- Quenching guidelines: the impact of alloy elements on the characteristic points and the shape of Fe-C diagram or on TTT diagram and therefore the structure; hardenability, heat treatment workability and the properties of steel; steel chemistry and thermal condustion; heat hardening, toughening, precipitation hardening (age hardening as an alternative for non-ferrous metal alloys and non-weathering austenitic alloy steel).
- Heating devices: introduction, typology, heating media.
- Cooling devices: introduction, quenching media – types and characteristics according to composition and purpose; cooling time, the relations between thermal condustion and the choice of quenching medium; causes for quenching cracks, causes for changes in the geometrical shape and dimensions for both heat treatment and quenching processes.
- Protective atmosphere in heat treatment: introduction.
- Quenching and drawback treatment methods: surface and customary quenching; martensitic and bainitic quenching. The necessity of tempering after quenching and transition processes during the steel soaking.
| Day 3
- Thermochemical treatment: Carbonization – the essence of the process, types of steel for carbonization, deciding on the thickness of carbonized coat. Nitrogen hardening - the essence of the process, types of steel for nitriding, deciding on the thickness of the coat. Carbonitriding – process analysis in comparison with carbonization.
- The analysis of heat treatment defects: wrong choice of austenitizing temperature, wrong choice of heating tool, wrong choice of protective atmosphere, wrong choice of cooling medium, wrong choice of tempering temperature (reversible and irreversible temper brittleness), wrong choice of the number of drawbacks.
- Annealing: with allotropic transformation (homogenization, normalization, true annealing, softening, isothermal annealing) or without allotropic transformation (recrystallizing, relief annealing, stabilization).
- Precitipation hardening (age hardening): as an alternative to heat treatment of alloys with no allotropic forms (corrosion-resistant alloy steels with austenitic structure, specific alloys, superalloys, non-ferrous metal alloys – Al and Cu alloys).
- Thermal coating: metallic and ceramic coating in order to protect the material from abrasion and enhance its thermal endurance; metal coating – chroming (plasma or oxyacetylene blowpipe), PVD – Physical Vapour Deposition processes and CVD – Chemical Vapour Deposition processes.